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Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)

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Background

Individual health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal & food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases. Government of India started the Central Rural Sanitation Program (CRSP) in 1986 with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women. CRSP was restructured in 1999, following which, a demand responsive community led “Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC)” was introduced which emphasizes more on Information, Education and Communication (IEC), Human Resource Development, Capacity Development activities to increase awareness and demand generation for sanitary facilities. This program is being implemented under direction of Government of India (Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development). Encourage by the success of NGP, the TSC has been renamed as "Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan" from 01/04/2012 which in turn is the successor program of TSC.

To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on sanitation, the Prime Minister of India launched the “Swachh Bharat Mission” on 2nd October, 2014. The Mission Coordinator shall be Secretary, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWS) with two Sub-Missions, the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban), which aims to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi.

The main objective is to improving the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitized.

Objectives:

The main objectives of the SBM(G) are as under:

  1. Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.

  2. Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019.
  3. Motivate Communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education.
  4. Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
  5. Develop where required, Community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.

Strategy:

The focus of the Strategy is to move towards a ‘Swachh Bharat’ by providing flexibility to State governments, as sanitation is a state subject, to decide on their implementation policy and mechanisms, taking into account State specific requirements. This is focused to enable States to develop an Implementation Framework that can utilize the provisions under the Mission effectively and maximize the impact of the interventions. The Government of India’s role would be to complement the efforts of the state governments through the focused programme being given the status of a Mission, recognizing its dire need for the country.

Important phases necessary for the Programme

(i) Planning Phase

(ii) Implementation Phase

(iii) Sustainability Phase

COMPONENTS OF SBM (G):

1. Start-Up Activities:

The start-up activities include:

 2. IEC Activities:

3. Capacity Building:

Funding for the Capacity Building Action plan will be from the IEC budget of upto 0.75% of each Districts total project cost, out of which 0.25% can be spent at the State level. The sharing pattern of expenditure will be in the ratio of 75:25 between GOI and the State Government.

4. Construction of Individual Household Latrines:

5. Micro Financing of Construction of Toilets:

States and Districts may examine possibilities to access credit at the local level to further the financing of sanitation activities which may be taken up either independently or in convergence with Swachh Bharat Mission activities. Such financing can be inter-alia through Banks, recognized financial institutions or through livelihood programmes.

 6. Community Sanitary Complex:

7. Equity and inclusion:

 8. Solid and Liquid Waste Management:

Individual Health and hygiene is largely dependent on adequate availability of drinking water and proper sanitation. There is, therefore, a direct relationship between water, sanitation and health. Consumption of unsafe drinking water, improper disposal of human excreta, improper environmental sanitation and lack of personal and food hygiene have been major causes of many diseases in developing countries. India is no exception to this. Government started the Central Rural Sanitation Programme (CRSP) in 1986 primarily with the objective of improving the quality of life of the rural people and also to provide privacy and dignity to women.